Biography Of Patrice Émery Lumumba and The True Story of his assassination

 Patrice Émery Lumumba

Patrice Émery Lumumba, patrice lumumba speech pdf, patrice lumumba's story pdf, the political thought of patrice lumumba, patrice lumumba speech, pauline lumumba, why patrice lumumba was assassinated, mobutu and lumumba, juliana lumumba, patrice lumumba biography pdf, biography of patrice emery lumumba,
 

A day will come when the history of Africa will be told, not as the Europeans and Americans wrote it, but the true and only history of Africa will be the one written by Africans. Patrice Lumumba 

That day has come...


January 17, 1961: from the assassination of Patrice Lumumba to the birth of a Lumumbist ideology


Congo, January 17, 1961. Patrice Lumumba is assassinated in Katanga. He is only 35 years old. Ephemeral Congolese Prime Minister just after independence in 1960, he only made a furtive passage on the front of the stage. And yet, sixty after his death, Lumumba remains an icon of the anti-colonial struggle. How was his thought perpetuated? How was his ideology constructed? What is left of it? Interview with historian Alfred Tumba Shango Lokoho, professor at the Sorbonne (Paris).


Alfred Tumba Shanga Lokoho: It is a thought, an “ideology” that was formalized after the death of Patrice Lumumba and which revolves around his figure as a nationalist, pan-African and anti-colonialist. This thought stems from a number of speeches that Lumumba will have given during his brief career. Because let's not forgotten that this is a kind of political meteor that emerged in 1958 and died two years later.

In that brief space of time he was able to go to the Pan-African Conference in Accra in December 1958, to Nigeria to the University of Ibadan to the Culture Conference, then to the Belgium Roundtable in 1960, then he Finally, there is the speech when he became Prime Minister on June 30, 1960, at the independence of the Congo.

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These are the ideas contained in these speeches that could be summarized under the label “Lumumbism”. Ideas on the independence of Africa, on anti-colonialism, on the right of Africans to dispose of their wealth, on the friendship between peoples in which he strongly believed, on “forgetting” the colonial past to allow Africa and the West to build a new destiny together.


It is above all the speeches that speak for him, more than the action because he was Prime Minister only for barely three months. And we can say that there was a very clear political vision, namely the independence of the Congo and Africa, cooperation between peoples and countries on an equal footing, and above all, what was starting to happen. profiler: non-alignment.


Lumumbism is therefore a "posthumous thought". Who was responsible for doing this work of construction, development, and perpetuation of this thought? 


In a clear manner, we must first see what Jean-Paul Sartre wrote in his preface to “ The political thought of Patrice Lumumba ” published by “ Présence Africaine ” and which had collected all his speeches. This preface is the first element in the construction of the aura of Lumumba.

Then there will be the play by Aimé Césaire, " Une Saison au Congo " which will help put him in the spotlight. Then there will be people like Frantz Fanon, Yves Bénot author of " La Mort de Lumumba or the Congolese tragedy”, But also all those who had known him near or far such as Heinz and Donay who wrote“ Patrice Lumumba, the last fifty days of his life ”.


Then it is African politicians like Nasser or Kwame Nkrumah (the Egyptian and Ghanaian presidents at the time, editor's note) who will promote him on the international scene. We could also quote Ahmed Sékou Touré in Guinea. In Europe, some personalities have tried to support him. In France, for example, he was defended by the lawyer Jacques Vergès.


Going even further, we can also add the creation of the Patrice Lumumba University in the Soviet Union which also contributed to the aura of Lumumba. Later it will be African youth, then, of course, historians.


December 2, 1960, in Léopoldville, the old name of Kinshasa. Patrice Lumumba was arrested by troops loyal to Marshal Mobutu. Without a doubt one of the last photos of Lumumba alive. He will die a month and a half later.


You mentioned the very short political career of Patrice Lumumba, barely three years old. It is an important element in the construction of Lumumbism and its posterity.


Between 1958 and 1961, Patrice Lumumba came to head the country in the context of the Cold War. We find in the Congo the actors of this war.

Belgium first of all, was then very poorly prepared to grant independence to the Congolese. There is a form of precipitation because the few political leaders of the Congolese National Movement of Lumumba, ABAKO, the Bakongo Alliance of the future President Kasa-Vubu, or even other protagonists like Moïse Tshombe in Katanga will demand Belgium independence, and this by seeing what happens in 1958 between France and its colonies with the referendum.

In January 1960, a round table will be organized in Brussels and the Congo will gain independence on June 30, 1960. But the Belgians, while accepting this independence, are wary of Lumumba and will make him an image of a brainless communist and unstable which, in the event of accession to power, would immediately lead his country towards the Soviet axis. 


In addition, in 1960, Lumumba, when he came to power, made a very virulent speech. King Baudouin had just taken the floor to extol the great work of his grandfather Leopold II. There followed a soporific speech by President Joseph Kasa-Vubu. 

Lumumba then takes the floor to explain that this independence was wrested in a hard fight by the Congolese who suffered all the humiliations and bullying possible and that it is not a gift from Belgium. This speech is perceived as a crime of fewer majesté which will lead the Belgian or American pharmacies to remove him from power.  

Pourquoi on a assassiné Patrice Lumumba

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Lumumba had only been Prime Minister for a month when the first police mutinies broke out on July 5, 1960, then on July 11, Katanga declared its secession and independence.

There, there is a precipitation of the disintegration of the State. Patrice Lumumba fled Kinshasa in November 1960, he was arrested on December 2 and at the end of December, he was brought to Katanga where he was assassinated.  


The board will have been soaped to him by Congolese actors manipulated by Belgium, the United States through the local head of the CIA, American intelligence, and even by President Dwight Eisenhower, although he had given up the project at the last moment. the assassination of Lumumba without the order reaching Congo in time.

Patrice Lumumba had this ability to galvanize but remains an ambivalent figure. He was a charismatic leader but from a practical point of view, he was not ready to exercise power as such. He alternated the best of an exalted nationalist, even mystical spirit with a sense of sacrifice. But as a practitioner of politics, his few months as Prime Minister showed that he was not really a manager, a team leader.


The thought of Patrice Lumumba, therefore, finds its source in a very precise historical context, that of Congolese independence. But, to listen to you, its construction was very largely done outside the Congo. What was the place of this thought in his country?


In the first five years of the chaotic independence of the Congo, we are in confusion with the Mulelist rebellion, named after Pierre Mulele, a former minister of Lumumba who wanted to continue his struggle.

Then Mobutu came to power in 1965 and played very skillfully. He is the one who, in 1960 arrested Lumumba and Kasa-Vubu the president, but, having reached the head of the country, he will try to recover Lumumba's memory by placing a few lumumbists at his side and then declaring him a national hero in 1966 and by promising a monument worthy of its aura! He will then integrate Lumumbists into his party, the Popular Revolutionary Movement (MPR), to the point of suffocating them. 


Then, in 1997, it was pseudo-lumumbists who returned with Laurent-Désiré Kabila and his Alliance of Democratic Forces for Liberation (AFDL). I specify nickname because, in reality, very few Congolese politicians know the story of Patrice Lumumba, very few have read it and know his political thought. They use Lumumba as a screen to existing in a very troubled political landscape since 1965. Even today, I very much doubt the Lumumbist sincerity of the Congolese political class. They use it as a slogan to exist politically. 


Is this the case for President Félix Tshisekedi? Can he claim to be a Lumumbist, he who promised the repatriation of Lumumba's remains? 

 

I don't think so, even if it is legitimate for him to try to finalize this story of Lumumba which has gone through all the upheavals of Congolese history since the 1960s. His father, Etienne Tshisekedi had known him well, he had even been his Minister of the Interior. But Felix Tshisekedi only seeks to weld around him by using the memory of Patrice Lumumba because he knows that it is a unifying theme. 


We have seen the emergence of many civil society movements in recent years, I am thinking of movements like Lucha and Filimbi. Is this where we find the legacy of Patrice Lumumba? 


Conscious and militant youth assert this ideal of Lumumba and I find it a very good thing. These young people know very little about the history of the first five years of Congolese independence, but they have in fact seized on a certain number of strong ideas of Lumumba and demand the exemplarity at the head of the State and of its Institutions.


Patrice Lumumba (né le 2 juillet 1925 à Onalua, Congo belge, et mort assassiné le 17 janvier 1961 près d'Élisabethville au Katanga) est un homme d'État congolais, premier Premier ministre de la République démocratique du Congo (République du Congo de 1960 à 1964) de juin à septembre 1960.

biographie de patrice lumumba

Patrice Émery Lumumba, patrice lumumba speech pdf, patrice lumumba's story pdf, the political thought of patrice lumumba, patrice lumumba speech, pauline lumumba, why patrice lumumba was assassinated, mobutu and lumumba, juliana lumumba, patrice lumumba biography pdf, biography of patrice emery lumumba,

Patrice Lumumba est un homme d'État congolais, premier Premier ministre de la République démocratique du Congo de juin à septembre 1960. Il est, avec Joseph Kasa-Vubu, l'une des principales figures de l'indépendance du Congo belge. Wikipédia

Date/Lieu de naissance : 2 juillet 1925, Katako-Kombe

Date de décès : 17 janvier 1961, Lubumbashi, République démocratique du Congo

Épouse : Pauline Opango (m. 1951–1961)

Enfants : François Lumumba, Juliana Amato Lumumba, Guy Patrice Lumumba, Roland Lumumba

Fonctions précédentes : Premier ministre de la République démocratique du Congo (1960–1960),

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